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Alternative universe

11.07.2013 20:43

Tento článek vznikl na objednávku. Sama od sebe bych se k němu asi neodhodlala. Rozhodně nemám pocit, že vím o AU víc než jakýkoli jiný čtenář fanfiction. Mám ale s tímto pojmem určité obtíže a tento článek pojednává zejména o těchto obtížích. Mohl by se klidně jmenovat „ Obtíže s alternativními světy“. Jsem zvědavá, zda je se mnou někdo sdílí? Začátek je trochu osobnější než je vhodné, nějak jsem si to nedokázala odpustit. Omlouvám se ...

 

Další články na příbuzné téma:

Julie: Jak se neztratit v alternativních vesmírech

Josika (Julie): Fúze (nikoli jaderná)

Elinor: Kouzelná dvě slova Alternativní Univerzum

Nagat: AU drinking game

Nagat: Z nejhlubšího kruhu pekla: Omegaverse

 

 

Osobní vyznání

 

Autorka tohoto článku uznává, že je na světě mnoho lidí, kteří toho přečetli mnohem více než ona. Prohlašuje ale, že poslední dva roky věnovala maximum svého času čtení fanfiction. Pohybovalo se to na hranicích jejích možností a zanedbávala kvůli tomu často své další povinnosti.

 

Autorka tohoto článku strávila nějaký čas před jeho napsáním pátráním ve své paměti a dospěla k názoru, že při striktním výkladu termínu AU nečetla žádný HP FF příběh, který by nebyl AU. Nejblíže k tomu mělo asi těch několik HP fanfiction, které vznikly ještě před dokončení HP série a které se sice z dnešní pohledu zásadním způsobem odklání od předlohy, ale z dobového hlediska to nejspíš jednoznačně nedělaly.

 

Autorka tohoto článku však věří, že kanonické fanfikční příběhy existují. Z doslechu o jejich existenci slyšela. Sama se s takovými (víceméně, aspoň co do záměru) setkala mimo HP fandom a velice ráda si vyslechne v komentářích typy na nějaké další.

 

Přesto si na základě svých zkušeností troufá tvrdit, že takové kanonické FF stojí na samotném okraji fanfikčního „alternativního vesmíru“. A proto jí připadá pošetilé takové příběhy považovat za normu a používat jako měřítko pro posuzování „správnosti“ těch ostatních. Myslí si, že podstatou fanfiction je něco zcela jiného, ba protichůdného, snaze držet se intencí původního autora. Každopádně má dojem, že pokud se na problém kánon versus AU nahlíží přespříliš přísně, vyplatilo by se vyznačovat spíše kanonickou věrnost než odchylku, protože právě ta je v rámci FF čímsi výjimečným.

 

 

Obtíže s alternativními světy

 

S termínem „AU“ mám docela potíž. Ta potíž spočívá v tom, že je to pojem užívaný ve značně širokém a nejednoznačném smyslu. Rozumíme pod ním zkrátka příliš mnoho rozličných věcí, což myslím potvrzují i výsledky ankety, kterou jsem nedávno uspořádala. Jenže právě tento širší a striktní (= vůči každé změně kánonu uplatňovaný) výklad tohoto pojmu mi natolik splývá se samotným pojmem fanfiction, že téměř dělá jedno z těchto slov zbytečným a nepatřičným.

 

Nahlížím totiž na samotnou fanfiction jako na svého druhu takový alternativní vesmír existující paralelně vedle kanonického díla a nikoli synchronně s ním. Pod vlivem Henry Jenkinse se domnívám, že fanfiction je jakýmsi „pytlačením“ na předloze a domnívám se tedy, že naprostá většina fanfiction je realizací touhy nějakým způsobem přepsat a nikoli doplnit kanonický příběh. Celý problém pak ještě komplikuje fakt, že i samotnému původnímu příběhu rozumí každý čtenář trochu jinak, kteréhož problému jsem se ale již dotkla v článku „Každý čteme jinou knihu“ a proto ho nyní již nebudu dále rozvádět.

 

 

 

Geografie prázdných míst fikčního světa

 

Pokud chce nějaký člověk napsat originální a při tom kanonicky věrný fanfičkní příběh, nezbývá mu než najít v kánonu místa, které jeho původní autor dosud nezaplnil událostmi a fakty. Musí prostě vyhledat ta místa, kde slovy latiníka ještě stále přebývají lvi.

 

Větší část fanfikčních příběhů, které za kanonické považuji, vznikla pravděpodobně z touhy vytvořit prostě další pokračování oblíbených dobrodružství po té, co ta originální již nebyla k dispozici. Pracovně jsem tyto příběhy nazvala „Jak to bylo dál“. Pojmenování jsem ukradla Máje, jejíž stejnojmenná série je sama o sobě pregnantním příkladem fanfikce tohoto typu. Nejpopulárnějším fanfikčním příběhem tohoto druhu je v českých zemích asi Martinův „Pán smrti“, který dnes samozřejmě také představuje alternativu k hlavnímu ději, ale svého času se zdál kanonický natolik, že se mohl pokoušet předstírat, že je autentickým pokračováním HP série. Specifickým příkladem tohoto typu fanfikcí jsou v HP fandomu také příběhy další generace Potterů, Albuse Severuse nebo Jamese Siriuse. Značné proslulosti dosáhla třeba série příběhů George Lipperta.

 

Pochopitelně je tu také možnost umístit děj svého příběhu před ten kanonický. V HP fandomu jsou například oblíbené příběhy z doby Pobertů. Za všechny jmenuji: „Všechno, co Harry kdy chtěl vědět o Pobertech (a bál se zeptat“.), ale hlavní autorskou fanfikční taktikou, jak napsat něco nového a při tom kánonu neodporujícího jsou tzv. „misang scenes“. V rámci HP fandomu je lze s nadsázkou a nepřesně definovat jako vše, co se ( alespoň dle autora té které fanfikce) dělo, když se zrovna Harry Potter díval jinam. Bohužel jediný trochu reprezentativnější příklad, který mě napadá, je FF „Štěstí je tam, kde ho najdeš“ od Razberry. Píši „bohužel“, poněvadž to z hlediska kanoničnosti není tak úplně uspokojivý příklad. Jde o slashový snupin příběh, který sice nepopírá většinové heterosexuální chování postav, ale nějaký literární purista dost těžko přijme jeho přirozenou návaznost na kánon.

 

Kdysi jsem se díky jednomu traileru na youtube seznámila s fanfikcí „Madam Minister“ od celticbard. Pojednávala o první ministryni kouzel a odehrávala se dávno před narozením většiny hrdinů vymyšlených Rowlingovou. Díky ní jsem pochopila, že existuje ještě další možnost, jak napsat kanonický fanfikční příběh. Když si vymyslíte cosi, co se teoreticky odehrává v daném fikčním světě, ale prakticky se týká časů nebo míst tak vzdálených tomu původnímu, že jej lze z vyšší míry považovat za dílo originální. Pro takové fanfikční příběhy sice není tak moc těžké se držet kánonu, problém je, že většinou nikoho dvakrát nezajímají, poněvadž čtenáři FF se starají zejména o osudy „svých“ hrdinů a neuspokojují je příběhy odehrávající se tolik mimo jejich známý svět.

 

 

KÁNONU SE DRŽÍCÍ PŘÍBĚHY:

 

1.typ: Jak to bylo dál?

 

2. typ: Chybějící scény

 

3. typ: Co bylo před tím? 

 

4. Spin-off

 

 

Typologie alternativních vesmírů - Část první: Něco je jinak

 

Teoreticky asi každá změna kánonu zakládá povinnost pro užití termínu AU, prakticky jsou - ať už v důsledku nedbalosti, nedostatečných znalostí, nepochopení, touhy udržet logiku vlastního příběhu - změny od kánonu natolik běžné, že se užívání tohoto termínu pro všechny případy, jeví jako nepraktické, protože - nic neříkající. Naprostá většina autorů se odchylkám nedokáže ubránit ani v případě, že chce. Ovšem ještě důležitější je, že to valná část autorů zcela důsledně dělat ani nechce. Za AU proto bývají většinou považovány až radikálnější a cílené změny kánonu. Charakter těchto změn by bylo možné dlouho a z různých stran rozebírat, já se raději spokojím s tím nejjednodušším rozdělením a zaměřím se jen na jejich rozsah.

 

Třebaže existuje i jakési vědecké pozadí termínu „alternative universe“ (odvislé od teoretických úvah ve kvantové fyzice), hádám, že do fanfiction byl přejat ze světa science fiction. V rámci tohoto literárního žánru bylo jeho užívání vázáno především k úvahám o cestování časem. Existují dvě základní představy o možnostech cestovatele v čase ovlivnit kauzalitu dějinného vývoje. V jedné představě cestovatel do minulosti, ať se bude sebevíce snažit, vždy musí naplnit právě tu dějovou linku, která ho přivede zpět do jeho současnosti. V druhém náhledu změny způsobené cestovatelem do minulosti zapříčiní vznik alternativní reality a cestovatel se pak do své časové roviny už vrátit nemůže.

 

Když jsem v anketě respondenty žádala o doporučení AU příběhů, čekala jsem že dostanu doporučení zejména na ty nejradikálnější AU a mírně mě zaskočilo, když jsem v jedné z prvních reakcí objevily FF „Rok jako žádný jiný“ nebo „Elysejský klíč“. Samozřejmě že to jsou AU příběhy, ovšem vzhledem k rozšířenosti takových AU je pro mě těžké je vnímat jako speciální kategorii FF a nazývat je speciálním pojmem. Tento druh příběhů v zásadě považuji za mainstream fanfikčního psaní a spadá do něj drtivá většina FF příběhů, které jsem kdy četla.

 

Jejich společným znakem je, že předpokládají, že významná část kanonického děje platí, ale v nějakou chvíli došlo k zásadnímu odklonu od něj, podobně jako v mnoha sci-fi příbězích o cestování časem. Teoretickým ideálem takových příběhů je realistické literární ztvárnění situace "Co by se stalo, kdyby...?", prakticky ovšem odchylky od kánonu bývají v těchto příbězích tak rozsáhlé, že se nedají vysvětlit pouhou změnou jediné události. Předpokládají komplexní posun celého fikčního světa, tak aby umožnil autorovi držet se svého záměru.

 

Většina (a to i většina úspěšných FF) kouzelnický (nebo jiný fikční) svět nějak dále dotváří a domýšlí. Někdy je počet těchto nových prvků a drobných úprav tak zásadní, že se do značné míry ocitají za hranicemi hřiště, které vymezil původní autor. Vytváří si vlastní pravidla hry. Takovým dotvářením proslul Kámen manželství a je typické třeba i pro Lanevřino psaní. Jen si přečtěte poznámky, pod jejím Cyklem povídek nebo pod Veritas.

 

Vzhledem k rozšířenosti změn mi přišlo praktické, když jsem u jakési autorky zahlédla, že na svém webu zavedla při značení povídek rubriku - AU dvojtečka -, za níž následují údaje o nejdůležitějších změnách, které v příběhu jsou. Líbí se mi ono samozřejmé očekávání, že příběh bude AU, zbývá jen určit v čem bude AU. Představuji si, jak by to vypadlo, kdyby se tento zvyk rozšířil a někdo by se pokusil napsat příběh zcela kanonický. Zápis by vypadal asi takto – AU: Žádné změny. Dodržuji kánon ve všem! - :)

 

 

 

ALTERNATIVNÍ SVĚTY 

 

A. Alternativní časové linie (podle Julie – kanonická AU)

 

1. typ: Podstatná část kanonického děje platí, ale v nějakou chvíli došlo k odklonu.

 

2. typ: Vlastně jen o něco radikálnější verze prvního typu. Neplatí nic z kanonického děje, protože k odklonu od něj došlo hned na začátku nebo dokonce ještě před začátkem.

 

 

Mezi fascinací a frustrací

 

Mám pocit, že geneze tohoto typu příběhů (minimálně v HP fandomu) má kořeny ve fanfikcích psaných před završením celé série a jsou tedy jako nekanonické vnímány až dnes. Pro velký úspěch tohoto schématu se v nich ovšem nadále pokračuje, tentokrát ale už kanonickým faktům navzdory. Koneckonců některá tato fakta se jeví jako nežádoucí a část čtenářů se s nimi prostě odmítá smířit.

 

Henry Jenkins mluví v této souvislosti o dvou motorech fanfikční psaní – o fascinaci a frustraci. Fascinace nějakým dílem (knihou, filmem, seriálem) nás nutí zaobírat se jím. Jenže ji může následovat frustrace, když se něco v rámci onoho díla neodehrává v souladu s našimi přáními. Frustraci může vzbudit to, když po shlédnutí posledního dostupného dílu oblíbeného seriálu nemáte čím dále živit svou fascinaci. Může ji vzbuzovat to, že vaše oblíbená postava nedostává v seriálu dostatečný prostor nebo z něj dokonce zcela zmizí. Frustraci může vzbuzovat, když váš hrdina skončí v páru s někým jiným než jste si přáli. A tak dále a tak dále a tak dále...

 

AU příběhy dávají autorům fanfiction skvělou příležitost přepsat si příběh podle svého a prostě pominout nežádoucí jevy. Ignorování epilogu je v HP fandomu natolik rozšířeným zvykem, že se pro tento fakt uchytilo dokonce speciální pojmenování - EWE (Epilog? What Epilog?). Takovým roztomilým a hravým příkladem přepisování epilogu je Alanin „Alternativní epilog k HP7“, přesněji jde o takový slashový dovětek k epilogu, který staví celou předchozí situaci na hlavu. Ještě zásadnějším jevem, je popírání smrti oblíbených postav. Oživování Siriuse, Remuse, Brumbála a zejména Severuse Snapea je v HP fandomu zcela zásadním jevem. Bez Snapea by to už prostě nebylo ono a čtenářská většina by přišla o důvod, proč fanfikční příběhy vůbec číst. :)

 

Kanonická věrnost tedy rozhodně není vždy ideálem fanfikčního psaní. Je jím jen tam, kde si ji autor přeje. Věřím, že minimálně podvědomým ideálem většiny autorů fanfiction je změnit nevyhovující a teprve pak dodržet v maximální míře to ostatní. To proto, že ono dodržení dalšího je podmínkou toho, aby autor i čtenáři mohli příběhu věřit.

 

 

Typologie alternativních vesmírů – Část druhá: (skoro) Všechno je jinak

 

Zatímco motivace k psaní prvního typu AU příběhů se mi zdá být zřejmá a splývá z důvody, proč je psána fanfiction jako taková, motivace k psaní typu druhého už mi tak samozřejmě zřejmá nepřipadá. Mám na mysli příběhy, v nichž sice vystupují stejné postavy jako v kánonu, ale které se odehrávají na zcela jiných místech nebo ve zcela jiném čase, zkrátka v úplně jiném světě, než příběhy původní. Jde o takové alternativní „alternativní světy“, něco jako AU „AU příběhy“. :)

 

Když se totiž řekne AU, představím si právě tento typ příběhů. Tyto příběhy patří ovšem v rámci celé fanfikční tvorby mezi okrajové jevy. V češtině je složité nějaké příklady najít. (Typy na další přijímám v komentářích dole.) Jsou natolik odlišné od zbytku fanfiction, že by si zasloužili vlastní pojmenování, které by je odlišilo od příběhů předchozího typu. Okrajově bych zde zmínila i pozoruhodné Sansiny „Neobvyklé okolnosti“, které se na počátku jako takový AU příběh tváří, nakonec je ovšem vysvětlení jiné.

 

Věřím, že jedním z těch nejzásadnějších motivů ke čtení fanfiction je touha znovu se potkávat s oblíbenými postavami. To, za jakých okolností a v jakém prostředí se bude ono setkávání odehrávat, je vedle otázky, s kým se tam setkáme, až druhotné. Proč tedy nevzít své hrdiny a nepřesadit je do prostředí, které je nám dobře známé nebo ho zkrátka máme rádi?

 

Je to trochu nespravedlivé, ale zájem a sympatie nepřipadají na všechna povolání, prostředí nebo období lidských dějin stejnou měrou. Některá prostředí jsou zkrátka oblíbenější něž jiná. Instalatéři asi nikdy nebudou tak populární jako lékaři, padesátá léta tak jako viktoriánská éra s krásnými šaty, koňskými spřeženími a ranými technickými vynálezy. Také v rámci AU příběhů jsou některá prostředí populárnější než jiná. Již zmíněná viktoriánská éra se řadí k těm častěji užívaným. Najít ji můžete třeba v i do slovenštiny přeložené „Štípce laskavosti k tomu“.

 

Velmi oblíbené jsou také AU příběhy ze školního prostředí, což nejspíš souvisí s faktem, že každý člověk někdy studoval a každý pisatel si tedy dělá oprávněné naděje, že něco takového zvládne věrohodně popsat. Vzhledem k tomu, že HP už je samo o sobě příběhem ze školy, můžete AU zaznamenat jen v takovém případě, že se ze školy kouzelnické stane náhle škola „normální“. Mezi příběhy tohoto typu patří například tragická snarry "Wishes are for Dreamers" od Yih.

 

ALTERNATIVNÍ SVĚTY 

 

B. Zcela jiné světy (podle Julie – nekanonické AU)

 

Některé oblíbené AU světy:

 

High Scool AU nebo College AU

AU z viktoránské doby nebo přímo Steampunk AU

 
 
 

Některé další oblíbené typy AU podle Fanlore:

 

  • oblíbená prostředí:

Historical AU (termín nadřazený, zahrnující množství všelikých epoch, fantazii se meze nekladou)

Pirate AU (zvláštní oblibě se prý těší vesmírní piráti)

Coffeeshop AU nebo Barista AU (hlavní hrdinové se mění na prodavače a zákazníka kavárny)

Vampire AU (upíři) a Werewolf AU (vlkodlaci)

Prison AU (vězení)

 

  • další kritéria:

Omega verse (svět se řídí zákony vlčí smečky, žijí tu alfy, bety a omegy)

All Human AU, Mundane AU (magický fiktivní svět se stává "normálním")

Magic AU (nemagický fiktivní svět se mění v magický)  

 

 

Kanononický charakter v nekanonickém vesmíru

 

Postava s původním charakterem je nutnou součástí opravdu kanonického příběhu, ovšem obráceně už to tak samozřejmě neplatí. Odvrhnutí kánonu není samo o sobě důvodem k odvrhnutí charakteru. Jak už jsem řekla, věřím, že touha setkávat s oblíbenými hrdiny je hlavním hnacím motorem živícím vášeň čtenářů FF a že proto i tehdy, když se smíří se změnou všeho ostatního, své oblíbené „charaktery“ touží najít stále v podobě nezměněné.

 

Koneckonců to, že použijete-li alternativní svět neomlouvá to samo o sobě i změnu charakteru se dočtete i pod heslem „alternative universe“ na Wikipedii. Mohly bychom snad proto věřit, že ono konstatování odráží panující společenský konsensus v této věci. Případná změna charakteru by proto měla buď logicky vyplývat se zápletky nebo by měla být vyznačena. Pojem AU není automatickou omluvou pro OOC charakter a označení OOC je proto dobrý základ autorovy sebeobrany v takovém případě. 

 

Je při tom jasné, že na tom, co je a není přijatelné odůvodnění se jen tak snadno neshodneme. Mám podezření, že některé vášnivější povahy by při diskuzi nad smysluplností a věrohodností té které povídky vytáhly na protistranu i nějaký ostrý předmět, jenž by byl v okolí zrovna k dispozici. S přihlédnutím k okruhu našich obvyklých činností, by to nejspíš bylo pero. :)

 

Star Trek fandom má skvělý nástroj, jak napsat mimocharakterní postavy a nejen je nemuset označit OOC, ale ještě se tvářit, že jde o dodržení kánonu. Tímto nástrojem je zrcadlový vesmír. Do zrcadlového vesmíru umístila svou povídku Zakalený křišťál Anna. Díky překladu od Archea Majuar je v češtině přístupná také povídka „Bed of Silence“ od Tiry Nog, která však není zcela šťastným příkladem, poněvadž správně temné charaktery si zrovna tam neužijete. Pro představu, co dokáže s hrdiny udělat zrcadlový , doporučuji raději TNG knihu „ Temné zrcadlo“. Takovému typu AU příběhů se říká "Canon AU", protože jejich alternativné realitě dal vzniknout už sám kánon.   

 

 

 KANONICKÝ ALTERNATIVNÍ VESMÍR

 

 Zrcadlový vesmír:

 

Touha odhalit skryté dobro v zlosynech a naopak temné stránky kladných hrdinů se samozřejmě neomezuje na fanoušky Star Treku. V HP fandomu vidím její stopy v povídkách jako je Nezáměrně tvůj od Dinkel. Třebaže tyto fanfikce (dodávám, že ke své škodě) nejsou označeny ani jako zrcadlové, ani jako AU, oplývají charaktery, které by se za zrcadlové označit daly. Existuje malá šance, že kdyby mi na začátku před jejich četbou někdo vysvětlil, že se nacházím v jiném vesmíru, byl by pro mě takový příběh přijatelnější.

 

Jedním ze sporných bodů v debatách o fanficton je, zda za změnu charakteru považovat i změnu sexuální orientace. Autorka tohoto článku přiznává, že v této věci zastává velmi zaujaté stanovisko. Je osobně přesvědčená, že pojmy IC a OOC se nevztahují na sexuální orientaci postavy.

 

Osobnost je psychologický pojem, který zahrnuje mnoho vlastností a ovlivňují ji všeliké životní zkušenosti. Z přísného náhledu by tedy každá změna událostí v AU příběhu měla automaticky avizovat změnu charakteru, nicméně, protože za nejvýznačnější rys osobnosti se považuje temperament, představuji si pod termínem IC zejména dodržení právě těch rysů osobnosti, které se týkají temperamentu. V té souvislosti mě proto zajímá, zda je postava introvertní nebo extrovertní, zda je flegmatik či cholerik. Sexuální orientace je stejně jako další okolnosti vedle toho až vedlejší vlastností osobnosti. Nemluvě o tom, že ti, kteří považují změnu orientace za změnu charakteru, o ní často uvažují přespříliš jako o něčem pevně daném a dalšími okolnostmi neovlivnitelném. Ano, jistě, my slashistky máme právě opačné tendence.

 

Podstatnější než jakékoli psychologické úvahy mi připadají důvody, které bych označila jako literárně kritické. Protože, třebaže tomu občas někdo nevěří, i většina čtenářek slashe touží najít v příběhu své hrdiny takové, jaké je znají. Kdybych připustila, že změna charakteru dělá postavu automaticky OOC, v diskusi nad nekanonickými slashovými páry (jichž je většina), by pak nebylo možné se bavit o tom, zda byl či nebyl charakter dodržen. Celá debata by byla smetena pod stůl s poukazem na to, že vzhledem k změně orientace už jde stejně o nekanonický charakter a s tím se já smířit rozhodně nedokážu.

 

 

Závěr

 

Na světě se najdou lidé, kteří pro pramalou schopnost autorů fanfiction navázat na kanonické předlohy dotyčným doporučují, aby nadále nezamršovali svět svými paskvily, ale já se pokouším raději ve své hlavě nerozdělovat příběhy na ty dobré a špatné, ale na ty, jejichž důvody k přepisování kánonu dokážu sdílet a na ty, u kterých mi to už nejde. Vždy je ale možné, že někde jinde existují lidé, kteří je sdílet mohou. Je zřejmé, že v zásadě si každý může psát, co se mu zamane, to hlavní, co při tom riskujete, že jeho práce nebude nikomu stát za to, aby ji četl.

 

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Zpět


Diskusní téma: Alternative universe

Datum: 15.12.2018

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Datum: 25.11.2018

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Datum: 20.11.2018

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Datum: 18.11.2018

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Datum: 17.11.2018

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Datum: 13.11.2018

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Datum: 09.11.2018

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Vložil: Ralphrit

Titulek: рекомендую заработок в Коломне молодым мамам и студентам, на стрижке с Дивией

В коломне, курсы парикмахеров Дивия
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Datum: 09.11.2018

Vložil: Davidmiz

Titulek: Выездной шиномонтаж

Выездной мобильный шиномонтаж в Москве и МО круглосуточно!
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4. Ремонт проколов и порезов.
Выездной шиномонтаж 24 часа в Москве и МО.
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Datum: 08.11.2018

Vložil: Daviddat

Titulek: Simone Biles Gewinnen Sie für den Weltmeisterschaften vier Allround-Titel

Biles hatte seit den Olympischen Spielen 2016 nicht mehr international teilgenommen, während sie im Januar enthüllte, dass ebendiese von einem ehemaligen Sportdoktor der Mannschaft USA sexuell missbraucht worden war.

Darüber hinaus wurde der 21-jährige Amerikaner am Vorabend jener Welten mit einem Nierenstein ins Krankenhaus eingeliefert.

"Dies ist definitiv der gruseligste von denen aus jener Vergangenheit", sagte sie.

Erst einmal hatte Biles mit Svetlana Khorkina aus Russland allen Rekord von drei Allround-Golds geteilt.

"In diesem Jahr gab es definitiv Höhen und Tiefen, zur Therapie und zu anderen Dingen. Nur im Fitnessstudio abgeschlossen sein, war ein bisschen rau, aber man versucht, sich auf eine Angelegenheit zu konzentrieren, um durchzukommen", sagte sie.

"Ich hoffe, dies gibt anderen Frauen die Gewissheit, dass Diese es immer noch gut bringen, ohne dafür bestraft abgeschlossen werden und Eltern die Turnerinnen in den Sportart zu versetzen und einander wohl zu fühlen. "

Die 19-jährige Britin Ellie Downie wurde nach zwei Eingriffen am linken Knöchel nach ihrer Rückkehr in das Rennen elf.

Am Samstag nimmt Downie am Finale der Stufenbarren teil, während der zweifache Olympiasieger Max Whitlock den dritten Weltmeistertitel in Folge auf diesem Pauschenpferd gewinnen will.

Biles holt trotz Fehlern allen 12. Weltgold
Biles hatte Fehler im Tresorraum, Hauptbalken und Boden, aber die Gesamtzahl von 57, 491 reichte aus, um allen Mai Murakami aus Japan in Silber und welchen Morgan Hurd aus zahlreichen USA auf Rang drei zu schlagen.

Ein Rückwärtsrollen bei der Landung auf einem Sprung und jenes Abfallen vom Balken ließen sie fast drei volle Punkte hinter ihren Qualifikationsergebnissen zurückfallen.

Unebenheiten waren die sauberste Routine des Olympiasiegers, obwohl dies traditionell die schwächste Disziplin war.

Als die künstlerin zuletzt auf dem Erde stand, brauchte sie die Punktezahl von 13. 307, um Murakami zu besiegen, um Gold zu bekommen, und selbst mit dem Schritt außerhalb der Grenzen erzielte Biles 15. wc, um den Titel unter zuhilfenahme von 1. 693 Mark zu besiegeln.

"Ich wünschte, mein hätte eine bessere Leistung zeigen können, weil ich nicht der Turner bin", fügte Biles hinzu, der bei den Olympischen Spielen 2016 vier Goldmedaillen gewann.

"Aber wir machen die meisten Fehler und fallen - es ist nur, sowie Sie aufstehen und sich selbst beweisen. "

Biles verhalf den USA zu anfang der Woche zu einem nachdrücklichen Gold der Frauen des weiteren ihr letzter Sieg brachte ihr den zwölften Weltmeistertitel ein.

Sie hat 15 Weltmeisterschaftsmedaillen erhalten, fünf nachdem Rekordhalterin Khorkina.

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Datum: 08.11.2018

Vložil: markCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons cpm trading

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
Rolands petersons cpm trading has released new forecasts on Poland becoming the logistics centre of Europe. Newest OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) data are indicating the increase of living standards in Poland, positive tendencies in economy and rapid development of the labour market.
Rolands petersons cpm trading
Experts at OECD has appreciated a change in the Polish labour market - a fall of the unemployment level to the lowest ever, reaching the lowest point in the last twenty years; labour demand is growing; and everything indicates a significant growth of average wages in the near future. Unemployment levels in Poland in 2017 were low - 4,9% and all the forecast are indicating the continuous fall reaching 4,2% in 2018 and 3,8% in 2019.
Rolands petersons cpm trading GDP will go on increasing, but a little bit more slowly. Forecasts for 2018 are 4,2%, but in 2019 - 3,7%. It should be mentioned that in 2017 GDP was 4,6%[1].
Rolands petersons cpm trading
Poland should think more about the agricultural production export area. Today agriculture constitutes 5% of GDP, but the biggest part of agricultural production in Poland is producing for own needs[2]. Export products for the most part are milk products, meat and potatoes.
Rolands petersons cpm trading By developing its infrastructure, Poland would be able to succeed exports.
Rolands petersons cpm trading The Baltic Sea provides the opportunity to develop cargo carriage faster than it is done now, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
Rolands petersons cpm trading who offers his thoughts on Poland economy.
To keep this positive tendency, Poland has to find opportunities to invest in proficiency enhancement, development of infrastructure and innovations. There should be a strategy allowing continuation and even growth of infrastructural investments.
Rolands petersons cpm trading
Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

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Datum: 08.11.2018

Vložil: vasiyCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons cpm trading

The transport development has caused objective problems for traffic in cities around the world, including Latvia, and the reason for this is a rapid increase in the number of vehicles.Rolands petersons cpm trading Road congestion is the most urgent problem in a trip planning because it affects the total time of transportation and, therefore, costs that have a particular relevance to the logistics industry.Rolands petersons cpm trading The quality of the roads, a painful subject in the past, has a significant impact on transportation time. Without high-quality roads, it is impossible to improve the efficiency of transport, which, in the context of economic globalization, is said to be one of the main directions for the logistics development.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Promises against statistics

At the end of 2017, according to the report "Global Competitiveness Index", which was annually compiled by experts from the World Economic Forum, Latvia was not ranked among the top 100 countries of the world's rating.Rolands petersons cpm trading (out of 137 countries participating in the ranking, Latvia took 107th place, and Lithuania and Estonia took the 37th and 38th places) Despite this, VAS (State Roads of Latvia) announced that, despite the increase in traffic on Latvian roads, their quality has been improved in recent years.Rolands petersons cpm trading

EU assessment - Stable 3 points.

In 2017, 65.1 million euros were spent on the development of the national roads, including 32.3 million for the summer period works, and 32.8 million for the winter period works.Rolands petersons cpm trading In the same year, it was also planned to spend 37 million more, compared with the previous year.Rolands petersons cpm trading However, even these investments have not resulted in the average level of road quality in the European Union. According to the latest report, the average level in the EU is estimated at 4.76 points, Latvia, compared to that has been given 3.05 points.

The state of the roads not only hinders the development of the logistics industry but also contributes to the disproportionate level and the pace of social and economic development of the regions.Rolands petersons cpm trading The most remote regions of Latvia can develop tourism facilities, offer industrial premises for entrepreneurs, etc. however, if there is no road system to get to these cites, no results shall be expected.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Financing is eight times less than it needs to be.

"Requests for the organization of roads," "Road quality is catastrophic" - these headlines often appear in the mass media, while road maps try to reduce the existing damage by implementation of available sources, however, there is no sign of a significant improvement, when the funding is eight times less than it is necessary. At the same time, we make the mistake of struggling only with the consequences of the disease, when we need to identify the root of the problem and take the preventive measures.

One of the main problems that can be figured out now is the climate of the country, which in Latvia will not change significantly in the future, therefore, the problem will remain constant.Rolands petersons cpm trading The number of vehicles will also increase, so the question is: how to increase financing, which is the most important addition to the urgent issues. 130 million euros are required annually for maintenance and repair works of local and gravel roads but this amount cannot be provided only by EU funds. It is also completely unclear how the situation will look like in 2020, after the end of EU funding program.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Without the excise tax on fuel, there is no chance for survival

The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions - change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons cpm trading The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed.Rolands petersons cpm trading Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.

In addition to financing, other necessary support measures need to be introduced: dumping water from roads in certain areas, timely planning, more restrictive control on roads, etc.
Rolands petersons cpm trading

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Datum: 08.11.2018

Vložil: macsimCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons cpm trading

Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons cpm trading Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons cpm trading

9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors - in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros - water transport, 2,061 euros - air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).

Special economic area as an additional support

The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure.Rolands petersons cpm trading Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company's income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons cpm trading The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks. The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports - SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.

Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.

There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets.Rolands petersons cpm trading There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics. Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East.Rolands petersons cpm trading Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law "On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones" on December 31, 2035.Rolands petersons cpm trading This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made. Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.

Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal. Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods. In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports. Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.Rolands petersons cpm trading

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Datum: 08.11.2018

Vložil: AlexeCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons cpm trading

Rolands Petersons, member of the board of CPM Trading SIA,
Railway transport is one of the most promising modes of inland transport, and, at the moment, it is said to be the crucial element in the economy of Latvia.Rolands petersons cpm trading Considering the entire volume of inland transport, the share of railway freight is about 52%, whereas the volume of the passenger transportation is 6% and in Riga suburban area the number is increasing up to 30%. However, the data summarized by the Ministry of Communications still shows that in Latvia the volume of freight rail transportation by comparison with 2016 has decreased by 8.4% and amounted to 43.792 million tons.

Traffic congestion can lead to a loss of 200 billion euros
The mobility of goods is an essential component of the EU internal market; this greatly contributes to the competitiveness of the industry and services in Europe.Rolands petersons cpm trading The types of lengthy transportation as railway can reduce their costs, which arise in connection with the traffic congestion on the roads. The increase of approximately 50% is projected by the year 2050, reaching a volume of almost 200 billion euros per year.Rolands petersons cpm trading

In the future, it is possible to increase the volume of rail transportation.
The amount of international rail transportation in 2017 was 42.138 million tons, which showed a decline of 9.1% compared to 2016. However, domestic traffic has increased by 11.5% to 1.653 million tonnes.Rolands petersons cpm trading The volume of transit cargo from the total amount of international rail freight transport amounted to 38.719 million tons, which showed a drop of 6.5% compared to the previous year, the volume of imported goods was 3.067 million tons, or 22.4% less, and the volume of export cargo was 351 800 tons, which was a drop of 2.8 times.Rolands petersons cpm trading In 2016, in Latvia, by rail, 47.821 million tons were transported. Taking into consideration the decline in the international transport sector in 2017, the question is, by which means can we achieve the volume increase? By implementation of the well-considered long-term solutions, it is possible to get back to the level that used to be before the embargo against Russia was introduced in 2013.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Increase of the average commercial speed of freight trains.
One of the key priorities nowadays is the development of the railway infrastructure, and in this case, it is expected, the railway infrastructure can be financed by the European Union.Rolands petersons cpm trading It is essential to find a solution how to increase the average commercial speed of freight trains since the speed is only about 18 km/h on the majority international routes in Europe. One of the solutions can be the improvement of cooperation between existing infrastructure organizations in Europe.Rolands petersons cpm trading The actual train system needs to be adapted to the needs of the railway freight transport sector, especially in the EU freight rail corridors. This would contribute to the competitiveness of rail transport with other modes of transport, especially with the road transport sector, which infrastructure is easily accessible in all Member States.

Well-thought-out charge for the use of infrastructure.
Freight trains pay for each kilometer of the railway infrastructure, which again adversely affects the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with road transport, where such charge is not always introduced. Setting the price that users are required to pay for getting into the infrastructure, it would be necessary to take into account the impact on the environment and pollution, congestion, accidents and other aspects.Rolands petersons cpm trading
The state should provide a proper support for organizations managing infrastructure, and rail transport enterprises should strive to improve the competitiveness of rail freight services, especially in regards to reliability, filling, elasticity, customer orientation, and the duration and cost of transportation, as these are the main aspects which are considered by an average consignor in selecting any of the available modes of transport.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Elimination imperfections in the liberalization of the freight transport process
In cooperation with both, the public and private sectors, at the international level, imperfections related to the liberalization of freight rail transport, communication lines procedures, administrative and technical restrictions, monitoring and anticipating performance in the rail freight industry, and fair competition between different modes of transportation. Therefore, it is necessary to find out the ways to make a better use of available EU funding and target it to the rail transport industry in order to achieve improvements in such areas as a coherent approach to policy objectives and funding (while focusing on corridors for freight railways transportation), for the selection, planning and management of projects, as well as for the maintenance of railroad networks.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Not only update, but also regularly support
It is essential to take to the new level not only the quality of the services provided to carriers and shippers of rail freight but, in general, to improve the competitiveness of rail freight transport; infrastructure managing organizations should not only update and modernize the railway network but also to regularly support it.Rolands petersons cpm trading This is especially important for the corridors of rail freight. If the tracks are not properly maintained, the speed limits will have to be applied and the railway lines will gradually be obstructed.Rolands petersons cpm trading

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Datum: 07.11.2018

Vložil: sveetaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons cpm trading

The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe.Rolands petersons cpm trading Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands petersons cpm trading This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors. Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy.Rolands petersons cpm trading The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers.

More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania

There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields.Rolands petersons cpm trading In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu. These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country. Rolands petersons cpm trading Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though.Rolands petersons cpm trading Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country.Rolands petersons cpm trading

A successful start is taken after reconstruction

The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well. After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route.Rolands petersons cpm trading The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results.
Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe. It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others.Rolands petersons cpm trading

Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities

Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia.Rolands petersons cpm trading To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands petersons cpm trading Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy.

Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities

The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities. It is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport. Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights.Rolands petersons cpm trading
The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union, or may face serious travel problems.Rolands petersons cpm trading The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.

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Datum: 07.11.2018

Vložil: kirillCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons de facto

Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
A new forecast on the economic activity of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was released. In 2018 it was constant.Rolands petersons de facto It was provided by oil production volume, recent business reforms and constant activities in other areas. In 2018 the UAE for the first time overachieved its OPEN oil production goal.Rolands petersons de facto
The UAE is preparing for World Expo in 2020, so a big amount of investment is being made to improve infrastructure. The state could expect an increase of tourism area dynamics, but it will need additional investments not related to oil production and crude oil refining.Rolands petersons de facto
This country could still be described in terms of development as long as its population grew from 9 million in 2013 up to 10,1 million in 2017; unemployment fell from 2,8% in 2013 to 1,7% last year[1]. Even though in 2014 many infrastructural projects were postponed, this year they will be continued, moreover there are new general plans for the following two decades. It was calculated that a recently adopted 5% of VAT will help to gain income in the amount of 12 billion euros during the first year of implementation[2].
All the Emirates, especially Dubai and Abu Dhabi are continuing their efforts to vary the economy and decrease the amount of activities related to oil products. In addition to the infrastructural projects, Abu Dhabi has made significant investments to the alternative energy sources creation, according to Rolands Petersons, a member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. who offers his thoughts on the UAE economy.Rolands petersons de facto
Despite having suffered crises, this country is still a demanded business partner among many world economies, it is being forecasted that before the World Expo in 2020 the UAE will become even an more demanded business partner worldwide.Rolands petersons de facto
Juergen Thomas Steinmetz has continuously worked in the travel and tourism industry since he was a teenager in Germany (1979), beginning as a travel agent up through today as a publisher of eTurboNews (eTN), one of the world’s most influential and most-read travel and tourism publications. He is also Chairman of ICTP. His experiences include working and collaborating with various national tourism offices and non-governmental organizations, as well as private and non-profit organizations, and in planning, implementing, and quality control of a range of travel and tourism-related activities and programs, including tourism policies and legislation. His major strengths include a vast knowledge of travel and tourism from the point of view of a successful private enterprise owner, superb networking skills, strong leadership, excellent communication skills, strong team player, attention to detail, dutiful respect for compliance in all regulated environments, and advisory skills in both political and non-political arenas with respect to tourism programs, policies, and legislation.Rolands petersons de facto He has a thorough knowledge of current industry practices and trends and is a computer and Internet junkie.Rolands petersons de facto

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Datum: 07.11.2018

Vložil: vaniaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons de facto

Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons de facto Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons de facto

9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors - in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros - water transport, 2,061 euros - air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).

Special economic area as an additional support

The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure. Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company's income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons de facto The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks.Rolands petersons de facto The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports - SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.Rolands petersons de facto

Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.

There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets. There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics. Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons de facto

Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East. Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law "On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones" on December 31, 2035. This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made. Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.Rolands petersons de facto

Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal. Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods.Rolands petersons de facto In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports. Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.

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Datum: 07.11.2018

Vložil: davidCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons de facto

Rolands Petersons, member of the board of CPM Trading SIA,
Railway transport is one of the most promising modes of inland transport, and, at the moment, it is said to be the crucial element in the economy of Latvia. Considering the entire volume of inland transport, the share of railway freight is about 52%, whereas the volume of the passenger transportation is 6% and in Riga suburban area the number is increasing up to 30%. However, the data summarized by the Ministry of Communications still shows that in Latvia the volume of freight rail transportation by comparison with 2016 has decreased by 8.4% and amounted to 43.792 million tons.Rolands petersons de facto

Traffic congestion can lead to a loss of 200 billion euros
The mobility of goods is an essential component of the EU internal market; this greatly contributes to the competitiveness of the industry and services in Europe.Rolands petersons de facto The types of lengthy transportation as railway can reduce their costs, which arise in connection with the traffic congestion on the roads. The increase of approximately 50% is projected by the year 2050, reaching a volume of almost 200 billion euros per year.

In the future, it is possible to increase the volume of rail transportation.
The amount of international rail transportation in 2017 was 42.138 million tons, which showed a decline of 9.1% compared to 2016.Rolands petersons de factoHowever, domestic traffic has increased by 11.5% to 1.653 million tonnes. The volume of transit cargo from the total amount of international rail freight transport amounted to 38.719 million tons, which showed a drop of 6.5% compared to the previous year, the volume of imported goods was 3.067 million tons, or 22.4% less, and the volume of export cargo was 351 800 tons, which was a drop of 2.8 times.Rolands petersons de facto In 2016, in Latvia, by rail, 47.821 million tons were transported. Taking into consideration the decline in the international transport sector in 2017, the question is, by which means can we achieve the volume increase? By implementation of the well-considered long-term solutions, it is possible to get back to the level that used to be before the embargo against Russia was introduced in 2013.Rolands petersons de facto

Increase of the average commercial speed of freight trains.Rolands petersons de facto
One of the key priorities nowadays is the development of the railway infrastructure, and in this case, it is expected, the railway infrastructure can be financed by the European Union.Rolands petersons de facto It is essential to find a solution how to increase the average commercial speed of freight trains since the speed is only about 18 km/h on the majority international routes in Europe. One of the solutions can be the improvement of cooperation between existing infrastructure organizations in Europe. The actual train system needs to be adapted to the needs of the railway freight transport sector, especially in the EU freight rail corridors.Rolands petersons de facto This would contribute to the competitiveness of rail transport with other modes of transport, especially with the road transport sector, which infrastructure is easily accessible in all Member States.

Well-thought-out charge for the use of infrastructure.
Freight trains pay for each kilometer of the railway infrastructure, which again adversely affects the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with road transport, where such charge is not always introduced. Setting the price that users are required to pay for getting into the infrastructure, it would be necessary to take into account the impact on the environment and pollution, congestion, accidents and other aspects.Rolands petersons de facto
The state should provide a proper support for organizations managing infrastructure, and rail transport enterprises should strive to improve the competitiveness of rail freight services, especially in regards to reliability, filling, elasticity, customer orientation, and the duration and cost of transportation, as these are the main aspects which are considered by an average consignor in selecting any of the available modes of transport.Rolands petersons de facto

Elimination imperfections in the liberalization of the freight transport process
In cooperation with both, the public and private sectors, at the international level, imperfections related to the liberalization of freight rail transport, communication lines procedures, administrative and technical restrictions, monitoring and anticipating performance in the rail freight industry, and fair competition between different modes of transportation.Rolands petersons de facto Therefore, it is necessary to find out the ways to make a better use of available EU funding and target it to the rail transport industry in order to achieve improvements in such areas as a coherent approach to policy objectives and funding (while focusing on corridors for freight railways transportation), for the selection, planning and management of projects, as well as for the maintenance of railroad networks.

Not only update, but also regularly support
It is essential to take to the new level not only the quality of the services provided to carriers and shippers of rail freight but, in general, to improve the competitiveness of rail freight transport; infrastructure managing organizations should not only update and modernize the railway network but also to regularly support it.Rolands petersons de facto This is especially important for the corridors of rail freight. If the tracks are not properly maintained, the speed limits will have to be applied and the railway lines will gradually be obstructed.

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Datum: 07.11.2018

Vložil: vitiaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons de facto

The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe. Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands petersons de facto This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors.Rolands petersons de facto Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy.Rolands petersons de facto The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers.Rolands petersons de facto

More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania

There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields. In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu.Rolands petersons de facto These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country.Rolands petersons de facto Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though.Rolands petersons de facto Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country.

A successful start is taken after reconstruction

The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed. At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well.Rolands petersons de facto After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route. The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results.Rolands petersons de facto
Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe. It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others.

Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities

Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia. To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands petersons de facto Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy.

Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities

The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities.Rolands petersons de factoIt is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport. Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights.
The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union, or may face serious travel problems.Rolands petersons de facto The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: antonCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicrediT

Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
A new forecast on the economic activity of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was released.Rolands petersons minicrediT In 2018 it was constant. It was provided by oil production volume, recent business reforms and constant activities in other areas. In 2018 the UAE for the first time overachieved its OPEN oil production goal.Rolands petersons minicrediT
The UAE is preparing for World Expo in 2020, so a big amount of investment is being made to improve infrastructure. The state could expect an increase of tourism area dynamics, but it will need additional investments not related to oil production and crude oil refining.Rolands petersons minicrediT
This country could still be described in terms of development as long as its population grew from 9 million in 2013 up to 10,1 million in 2017; unemployment fell from 2,8% in 2013 to 1,7% last year[1]. Even though in 2014 many infrastructural projects were postponed, this year they will be continued, moreover there are new general plans for the following two decades.Rolands petersons minicrediT It was calculated that a recently adopted 5% of VAT will help to gain income in the amount of 12 billion euros during the first year of implementation[2].Rolands petersons minicrediT
All the Emirates, especially Dubai and Abu Dhabi are continuing their efforts to vary the economy and decrease the amount of activities related to oil products. In addition to the infrastructural projects, Abu Dhabi has made significant investments to the alternative energy sources creation, according to Rolands Petersons, a member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. who offers his thoughts on the UAE economy.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Despite having suffered crises, this country is still a demanded business partner among many world economies, it is being forecasted that before the World Expo in 2020 the UAE will become even an more demanded business partner worldwide.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Juergen Thomas Steinmetz has continuously worked in the travel and tourism industry since he was a teenager in Germany (1979), beginning as a travel agent up through today as a publisher of eTurboNews (eTN), one of the world’s most influential and most-read travel and tourism publications. He is also Chairman of ICTP.Rolands petersons minicrediT His experiences include working and collaborating with various national tourism offices and non-governmental organizations, as well as private and non-profit organizations, and in planning, implementing, and quality control of a range of travel and tourism-related activities and programs, including tourism policies and legislation.Rolands petersons minicrediT His major strengths include a vast knowledge of travel and tourism from the point of view of a successful private enterprise owner, superb networking skills, strong leadership, excellent communication skills, strong team player, attention to detail, dutiful respect for compliance in all regulated environments, and advisory skills in both political and non-political arenas with respect to tourism programs, policies, and legislation.Rolands petersons minicrediT He has a thorough knowledge of current industry practices and trends and is a computer and Internet junkie.Rolands petersons minicrediT

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: Alonzowhigo

Titulek: интересует покупка украшения картье или тиффани

ребят, здорово, очень нужна ваша помощь!
скоро день рождения жены, а я до сих пор подарок не купил!, где в Москве купить красивое изделие с лучшими бриллиантами?
в ювелирном магазине вообще не хочу по причине ацких ценников и однообразия
порекомендовал знакомый ювелирное производство Верум Даймонд, вроде разумно по цене по срокам дней 7-8 обещают
Хочу колечко выбрать красивое булгари или тифани, и на заказ купить, чего присоветуете?,как думаете лучше готовое купить или подождать неделю, зато съэкономить тыщ 50-70

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: tairCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicrediT

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT has released a new report on Cyprus who experienced an economic recession just recently, but indicated 5th most rapid growth in the European Union last year. In the last quarter of 2017 economic growth reached 3,9% - Cyprus achieved such a result for the first time in the last ten years, according to Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
The amount of investment funds and the amount of assets being managed by them reflected growth in late 2017 and first half of 2018. In December 2017 there were 114 funds registered in Cyprus, but this year there are 130 already[1].Rolands petersons minicrediT The amount of assets managed by them experienced growth of 6%, reaching 4,718 billion euros in absolute terms (for comparison we could mention that in March this year the total amount of assets reached only 4,446 billion euros)[2].Rolands petersons minicrediT
In August the Cyprus Department of Transportation initiated amendments in its transportation fiscal policy, influencing new and used transport facilities registered after the law will be adopted. Outlining the above amendments are providing bigger road taxes for drivers with older cars and more horsepower, but those green-thinking will pay less. Such amendments provide several advantages: save income from transport taxation, decrease environment pollution, contribute to assets flow, and new car purchased stimulates a more attractive environment for foreigners, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT who offers his thoughts on the Cyprus economy.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Smart investment and fiscal policy, increasing the budget income, simultaneously stimulating the national economy and one of the most important areas - tourism, as well as caring about environment protection in total resulted in significant economic growth and we are sure that in total numbers of 2018 Cyprus will also provide a great example for many economies.Rolands petersons minicrediT
About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:
Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. is an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016.Rolands petersons minicrediT This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centers in the world. The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo.Rolands petersons minicrediT Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers is medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of "Norman Logistics spzoo" Rolands petersons minicrediT

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: AshleyFar

Titulek: Несколько фактов о Челябинске


Челя?бинск седьмой по количеству жителей, четырнадцатый по занимаемой площади город Российской Федерации, административный центр Челябинской области, городской округ с внутригородским делением[7]. Население — 1 198 858[5] человек (2017) . Челябинск расположен на геологической границе Урала и Сибири, на восточном склоне Уральских гор, по обоим берегам реки Миасса (бассейн Тобола)[4] .





[b]Театр оперы и балета имени М. В. Глинки[/b]

Развитие музыкальной культуры и художественно-эстетическое воспитание населения лежит на могучих, натренированных плечах Челябинского государственного академического театра оперы и балета имени М. В. Глинки, вернее на его четырех столпах — оркестре, опере, балете и хоре.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: vadimCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicrediT

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. has released new forecasts on Poland becoming the logistics centre of Europe.Rolands petersons minicrediT Newest OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) data are indicating the increase of living standards in Poland, positive tendencies in economy and rapid development of the labour market.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Experts at OECD has appreciated a change in the Polish labour market - a fall of the unemployment level to the lowest ever, reaching the lowest point in the last twenty years; labour demand is growing; and everything indicates a significant growth of average wages in the near future. Unemployment levels in Poland in 2017 were low - 4,9% and all the forecast are indicating the continuous fall reaching 4,2% in 2018 and 3,8% in 2019. GDP will go on increasing, but a little bit more slowly.Rolands petersons minicrediT Forecasts for 2018 are 4,2%, but in 2019 - 3,7%. It should be mentioned that in 2017 GDP was 4,6%[1].
Poland should think more about the agricultural production export area. Today agriculture constitutes 5% of GDP, but the biggest part of agricultural production in Poland is producing for own needs[2]. Export products for the most part are milk products, meat and potatoes. By developing its infrastructure, Poland would be able to succeed exports.Rolands petersons minicrediT The Baltic Sea provides the opportunity to develop cargo carriage faster than it is done now, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons minicrediT who offers his thoughts on Poland economy.Rolands petersons minicrediT
To keep this positive tendency, Poland has to find opportunities to invest in proficiency enhancement, development of infrastructure and innovations. There should be a strategy allowing continuation and even growth of infrastructural investments.Rolands petersons minicrediT
Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: kostiaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicredit

The transport development has caused objective problems for traffic in cities around the world, including Latvia, and the reason for this is a rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Road congestion is the most urgent problem in a trip planning because it affects the total time of transportation and, therefore, costs that have a particular relevance to the logistics industry. The quality of the roads, a painful subject in the past, has a significant impact on transportation time.Rolands petersons minicredit Without high-quality roads, it is impossible to improve the efficiency of transport, which, in the context of economic globalization, is said to be one of the main directions for the logistics development.Rolands petersons minicredit

Promises against statistics

At the end of 2017, according to the report "Global Competitiveness Index", which was annually compiled by experts from the World Economic Forum, Latvia was not ranked among the top 100 countries of the world's rating. (out of 137 countries participating in the ranking, Latvia took 107th place, and Lithuania and Estonia took the 37th and 38th places) Despite this, VAS (State Roads of Latvia) announced that, despite the increase in traffic on Latvian roads, their quality has been improved in recent years.Rolands petersons minicredit

EU assessment - Stable 3 points.

In 2017, 65.1 million euros were spent on the development of the national roads, including 32.3 million for the summer period works, and 32.8 million for the winter period works. In the same year, it was also planned to spend 37 million more, compared with the previous year.Rolands petersons minicredit However, even these investments have not resulted in the average level of road quality in the European Union. According to the latest report, the average level in the EU is estimated at 4.76 points, Latvia, compared to that has been given 3.05 points.

The state of the roads not only hinders the development of the logistics industry but also contributes to the disproportionate level and the pace of social and economic development of the regions.Rolands petersons minicredit The most remote regions of Latvia can develop tourism facilities, offer industrial premises for entrepreneurs, etc. however, if there is no road system to get to these cites, no results shall be expected.

Financing is eight times less than it needs to be.

"Requests for the organization of roads," "Road quality is catastrophic" - these headlines often appear in the mass media, while road maps try to reduce the existing damage by implementation of available sources, however, there is no sign of a significant improvement, when the funding is eight times less than it is necessary.Rolands petersons minicredit At the same time, we make the mistake of struggling only with the consequences of the disease, when we need to identify the root of the problem and take the preventive measures.

One of the main problems that can be figured out now is the climate of the country, which in Latvia will not change significantly in the future, therefore, the problem will remain constant.Rolands petersons minicredit The number of vehicles will also increase, so the question is: how to increase financing, which is the most important addition to the urgent issues.Rolands petersons minicredit 130 million euros are required annually for maintenance and repair works of local and gravel roads but this amount cannot be provided only by EU funds. It is also completely unclear how the situation will look like in 2020, after the end of EU funding program. Rolands petersons minicredit

Without the excise tax on fuel, there is no chance for survival

The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions - change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons minicredit The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed. Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.Rolands petersons minicredit

In addition to financing, other necessary support measures need to be introduced: dumping water from roads in certain areas, timely planning, more restrictive control on roads, etc.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: jeniaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicredit

Transport and logistics industries are of particular importance for the Latvian economy since they have a steady GDP growth and provide services to virtually all other sectors of the national economy.Rolands petersons minicredit Every year it is emphasized that this sector should be recognized as a priority and extend its promotion, however, the representatives of the transport and logistics sector are looking forward to more concrete and long-term solutions.Rolands petersons minicredit

9.1% of the value added to the GDP of Latvia

Despite the political and economic changes of the last decade, the influence of the transport and logistics industry on the economy of our country remains high: in 2016 the sector increased the value added to the GDP by 9.1%. Moreover, the average monthly gross wage is still higher then in other sectors - in 2016 in other sectors of the economy it was 859 euros, whereas in storage and transportation sector the average gross wage is about 870 euros (1,562 euros - water transport, 2,061 euros - air transport, 1059 euros in the of storage and auxiliary transport activities, etc.).Rolands petersons minicredit

Special economic area as an additional support

The positive examples of the logistics industry are the ports that have developed a good structure.Rolands petersons minicredit Riga and Ventspils ports function as free ports, and the Liepaja port is included in the Liepaja Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Companies operating in free ports and SEZ can receive not only the 0 tax rate for customs, excise, and value-added tax but also a discount of up to 80% of the company's income and up to 100% of the real estate tax.Rolands petersons minicredit The port is actively implementing various investment projects related to the construction and development of industrial and distribution parks.Rolands petersons minicredit The attraction of investments promotes the creation of higher added value, development of production, expansion of a spectrum of given services and creation of new workplaces. It is necessary to bring to the attention the small ports - SKULTE, Mersrags, SALACGRiVA, Pavilosta, Roja, Jurmala, and Engure, which currently occupy a stable position in the Latvian economy and have already become regional economic activity centers.

Port of Liepaja, will be the next Rotterdam.

There is also a wide range of opportunities for growth, and a number of actions that can be taken to meet projected targets.Rolands petersons minicredit There is a strong need for the services with high added value, the increase of the processed volumes of cargo by attracting new freight flows, high-quality passenger service and an introduction of modern technologies and information systems in the area of transit and logistics. Liepaja port has all the chances to become the second Rotterdam in the foreseeable future.Rolands petersons minicredit

Latvia as a distribution center for cargos from Asia and the Far East.

One of the most important issues for further growth of the port and special economic zone is the development of logistics and distribution centers, mainly focusing on the attraction of goods from Asia and the Far East.Rolands petersons minicredit Latvia can serve as a distribution center for cargos in the Baltic and Scandinavian countries for Asia and the Far East (f.e. China, Korea). The tax regime of the Liepaja Special Economic Zone in accordance with the Law "On Taxation in Free Ports and Special Economic Zones" on December 31, 2035. This allows traders to conclude an agreement on investment and tax concession until December 31, 2035, until they reach a contractual level of assistance from the investments made.Rolands petersons minicredit Considering the range of benefits provided by this status, it is necessary to consider the possible extension of the term.

Infrastructure development and expansion of warehouse space

Our advantage lies in the fact that there is not only a strategic geographical position but also a developed infrastructure that includes deep-water berths, cargo terminals, pipelines and territories free from the cargo terminal.Rolands petersons minicredit Apart from this, we can add a good structure of pre-industrial zone, distribution park, multi-purpose technical equipment, as well as the high level of security not only in terms of delivery but also in terms of the storage and handling of goods. In the future, it would be advisable to pay more attention to access roads (railways and highways), increase the volume of storage facilities, and increase the number of services provided by ports.Rolands petersons minicredit Participation in international industry exhibitions and conferences will make it possible to attract additional foreign investments and will contribute to the improvement of international image.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: AlexeyCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicredit

Rolands Petersons, member of the board of CPM Trading SIA,
Railway transport is one of the most promising modes of inland transport, and, at the moment, it is said to be the crucial element in the economy of Latvia. Considering the entire volume of inland transport, the share of railway freight is about 52%, whereas the volume of the passenger transportation is 6% and in Riga suburban area the number is increasing up to 30%.Rolands petersons minicredit However, the data summarized by the Ministry of Communications still shows that in Latvia the volume of freight rail transportation by comparison with 2016 has decreased by 8.4% and amounted to 43.792 million tons.Rolands petersons minicredit

Traffic congestion can lead to a loss of 200 billion euros
The mobility of goods is an essential component of the EU internal market; this greatly contributes to the competitiveness of the industry and services in Europe.Rolands petersons minicredit The types of lengthy transportation as railway can reduce their costs, which arise in connection with the traffic congestion on the roads. The increase of approximately 50% is projected by the year 2050, reaching a volume of almost 200 billion euros per year.Rolands petersons minicredit

In the future, it is possible to increase the volume of rail transportation.
The amount of international rail transportation in 2017 was 42.138 million tons, which showed a decline of 9.1% compared to 2016. However, domestic traffic has increased by 11.5% to 1.653 million tonnes.Rolands petersons minicredit The volume of transit cargo from the total amount of international rail freight transport amounted to 38.719 million tons, which showed a drop of 6.5% compared to the previous year, the volume of imported goods was 3.067 million tons, or 22.4% less, and the volume of export cargo was 351 800 tons, which was a drop of 2.8 times. In 2016, in Latvia, by rail, 47.821 million tons were transported. Taking into consideration the decline in the international transport sector in 2017, the question is, by which means can we achieve the volume increase? By implementation of the well-considered long-term solutions, it is possible to get back to the level that used to be before the embargo against Russia was introduced in 2013.Rolands petersons minicredit

Increase of the average commercial speed of freight trains.
One of the key priorities nowadays is the development of the railway infrastructure, and in this case, it is expected, the railway infrastructure can be financed by the European Union.Rolands petersons minicredit It is essential to find a solution how to increase the average commercial speed of freight trains since the speed is only about 18 km/h on the majority international routes in Europe.Rolands petersons minicredit One of the solutions can be the improvement of cooperation between existing infrastructure organizations in Europe. The actual train system needs to be adapted to the needs of the railway freight transport sector, especially in the EU freight rail corridors. This would contribute to the competitiveness of rail transport with other modes of transport, especially with the road transport sector, which infrastructure is easily accessible in all Member States.

Well-thought-out charge for the use of infrastructure.
Freight trains pay for each kilometer of the railway infrastructure, which again adversely affects the competitiveness of the railway in comparison with road transport, where such charge is not always introduced.Rolands petersons minicredit Setting the price that users are required to pay for getting into the infrastructure, it would be necessary to take into account the impact on the environment and pollution, congestion, accidents and other aspects.Rolands petersons minicredit
The state should provide a proper support for organizations managing infrastructure, and rail transport enterprises should strive to improve the competitiveness of rail freight services, especially in regards to reliability, filling, elasticity, customer orientation, and the duration and cost of transportation, as these are the main aspects which are considered by an average consignor in selecting any of the available modes of transport.

Elimination imperfections in the liberalization of the freight transport process
In cooperation with both, the public and private sectors, at the international level, imperfections related to the liberalization of freight rail transport, communication lines procedures, administrative and technical restrictions, monitoring and anticipating performance in the rail freight industry, and fair competition between different modes of transportation.Rolands petersons minicredit Therefore, it is necessary to find out the ways to make a better use of available EU funding and target it to the rail transport industry in order to achieve improvements in such areas as a coherent approach to policy objectives and funding (while focusing on corridors for freight railways transportation), for the selection, planning and management of projects, as well as for the maintenance of railroad networks.

Not only update, but also regularly support
It is essential to take to the new level not only the quality of the services provided to carriers and shippers of rail freight but, in general, to improve the competitiveness of rail freight transport; infrastructure managing organizations should not only update and modernize the railway network but also to regularly support it.Rolands petersons minicredit This is especially important for the corridors of rail freight. If the tracks are not properly maintained, the speed limits will have to be applied and the railway lines will gradually be obstructed.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: sashaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons minicredit

The free movement of goods, services, capital, and people-these are the pillars that form an essential foundation for welfare and employment in Europe. Mobility is the fundamental premise for these four core values to be strengthened not only in the domestic market but also beyond its borders.Rolands petersons minicredit This is particularly significant in the Baltic Sea region, where a well thought-out and developed transport system is one of the positive development factors. Flight-related activities have both direct and indirect impact on the economy.Rolands petersons minicredit The direct impact includes the income derived from the activities of airline personnel and ground handling workers, whereas the indirect input implies all purchases in the aviation sector from locally based suppliers who basically do not represent the aviation sector. Additional impact on the economy of Latvia is formed by the costs of aviation sector employees and service providers.

More than 30 airports are located in Lithuania

There are four international airports operating in Lithuania - in Kaunas, Palanga, Siauliai, and, of course, in Vilnius, and there are more than 30 smaller airports and military airfields.Rolands petersons minicredit In Estonia, airports are mainly located in the capital in Tallinn, as well as in Tartu, Kuressaare, Kerdle and Parnu. These are international airports, however, there are more than 15 private and military airports and so-called airports of local importance located throughout the country.Rolands petersons minicredit Latvia still has only two international airports - in Riga and in Liepaja; there are also small airdromes, for example, in Spilva, in Tukums and Ventspils, and several other military flight platforms though. Riga International Airport entered the top five rapidly growing airports in Europe last year, which lead to an increase in the number of passengers by 16.2%. Therefore, it underscores the fact that even though the airport in Liepaja will have to put a lot of time and effort to its development, it brings a great potential, which can give a significant and valuable contribution to the domestic economy of the country.Rolands petersons minicredit

A successful start is taken after reconstruction

The airport in Liepaja did a great job - in 2015 after its reconstruction was completed.Rolands petersons minicredit At the airport a significant drainage effort was undertaken, a new cover for the take-off track was laid, the take-off strip was reinforced, the cover of the shunting route was improved and expanded, parking places for the aircraft were renovated as well. After Liepaja Airport was certified for commercial flights for the summer season in 2016, the Latvian national airline "AirBaltic" launched regular flights between Riga and Liepaja. During the first half of that year, more than 4,780 passengers were transported along this route. The five most popular destinations for transit flights along the Liepaja route include London, Berlin, Moscow, Copenhagen, and Hamburg, which, in general, brought very good results.Rolands petersons minicredit
Keeping in mind the processes that are still underway, it is important to mention the extensive capacity-building of the airports, environment protection in a long-term, enhancement of cooperation with other regional airports in Europe. It is not enough for Latvia to have only one high-capacity airport - we have a regional leader who can serve as an example of a successful market behavior for others.Rolands petersons minicredit

Support strategy for attracting new aviation communities

Liepaja airport is the only example nowadays in terms of Latvian regional airports, however, I see several competitive regional airports in Latvia. To promote their development, a thorough analysis of the passengers' potential is needed, starting with linking their activities with the existing types of transport in the surrounding region, forming a support strategy to attract new aviation communities, passengers, and additional services for client groups, bearing in mind that the added value of airports is formed by airlines operating there, strategic cooperation partners and service providers.Rolands petersons minicredit Without a doubt, it is also essential to study the ultimate goals of tourist destinations, in order to promote the growth of the travel market and ensure its positive impact on the economy.Rolands petersons minicredit

Infrastructure for a variety multifaceted of commercial activities

The strategic objective of the regional airports is a creation of the favorable and unified conditions for the enterprises and institutions operating there, as well as to proactive procurement of a sufficient infrastructure for the development various of commercial activities.Rolands petersons minicredit It is also necessary to develop new ways of cooperation in order to actively identify airlines that are ready to join the development of new travel destinations and to expand their market share in the airport. Apart from this, it is necessary to work on the incentive prerequisites for launching new flights.Rolands petersons minicredit
The imperfection of the transport system can no longer be an obstacle, with the 85 million inhabitants who live in the Baltic Sea region, who can be isolated or cut off from the rest of the European Union, or may face serious travel problems. The power generated by the economy and innovation provides the Baltic Sea Region with opportunities to create a modern, forward-looking transport system that will also contribute to the creation of a socially balanced economic policy.Rolands petersons minicredit

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: AlexeyCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons privatbank

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank has released a new report on Cyprus who experienced an economic recession just recently, but indicated 5th most rapid growth in the European Union last year. In the last quarter of 2017 economic growth reached 3,9% - Cyprus achieved such a result for the first time in the last ten years, according to Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank
Member of the board CPM Trading LTD Rolands Peterson (PRNewsfoto/CPM Trading LTD)
The amount of investment funds and the amount of assets being managed by them reflected growth in late 2017 and first half of 2018. In December 2017 there were 114 funds registered in Cyprus, but this year there are 130 already[1].Rolands petersons privatbank The amount of assets managed by them experienced growth of 6%, reaching 4,718 billion euros in absolute terms (for comparison we could mention that in March this year the total amount of assets reached only 4,446 billion euros)[2].Rolands petersons privatbank
In August the Cyprus Department of Transportation initiated amendments in its transportation fiscal policy, influencing new and used transport facilities registered after the law will be adopted. Rolands petersons privatbank Outlining the above amendments are providing bigger road taxes for drivers with older cars and more horsepower, but those green-thinking will pay less. Such amendments provide several advantages: save income from transport taxation, decrease environment pollution, contribute to assets flow, and new car purchased stimulates a more attractive environment for foreigners, according to Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.Rolands petersons privatbank who offers his thoughts on the Cyprus economy.
Smart investment and fiscal policy, increasing the budget income, simultaneously stimulating the national economy and one of the most important areas - tourism, as well as caring about environment protection in total resulted in significant economic growth and we are sure that in total numbers of 2018 Cyprus will also provide a great example for many economies.Rolands petersons privatbank
About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:
Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. is an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016. This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centers in the world.Rolands petersons privatbank The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo. Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers is medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.Rolands petersons privatbank
Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of "Norman Logistics spzoo"

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: taniaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons privatbank

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. has released a new forecasts of Poland economy. Economic growth by 5,1% in the second quarter of this year and 5,2% in the first quarter shows that Poland is on a stable, correct and sustainable development road. It is worth to recall that in the last quarter of 2017 the increase was 4,9%, but in the last whole year- 4,6%[1].Rolands petersons privatbank Although the Polish Prime Minister in an interview highlighted that external economic turbulence may pose a threat to the national economy, other significant indicators indicate that the situation inside the country is sufficiently stable to overcome external difficulties.Rolands petersons privatbank
One of the most prominent indicators, which reflects the home work done by Poland, is the unemployment rate, more precisely- the decrease of unemployment. According to the latest static data, last month it has decreased by 0.1% (from July to August this year), and it continues to decline. Another reason why external threats to Poland are not so scary is the fact that the biggest development guide of GDP growth is domestic consumption, (domestic demand). Domestic demand, with the dominant contribution of consumption reached 2,9%.
Although the volume of investments in Poland has decreased (4,5% in the second quarter of this year against the same quarter last year, when it was 8,1%), by a review of local government spending we conclude that the situation can be smooth out.Rolands petersons privatbank Also the revival of company investment outlays, including SMEs, is an important element that should help to boost GDP growth in coming quarters, Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. offers his thoughts on Poland economy.Rolands petersons privatbank
About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:
Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o. is an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016.Rolands petersons privatbank This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centres in the world. The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo.Rolands petersons privatbank Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers are medium or large shipping companies.Rolands petersons privatbank The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one-point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.Rolands petersons privatbank
Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: AlexeyCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons privatbank

Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
Rolands petersons privatbank has released a new forecasts of UAE economy. Analysing the indicators of the last 20 months, we can conclude that since August non-oil economy growth has slowed down. The seasonally adjusted purchasing managers' index - a composite indicator designed to give an overview of operating conditions in the non-oil private sector economy - dropped to 55 in August, from 55,8 in July[1].Despite slower growth, optimism among businesses in the UAE's non-oil private sector accelerated to a record high.
Rolands petersons privatbank Optimism is encouraged by the reluctance of many companies to launch new products, implement innovative marketing efforts, and opportunities to participate in Expo 2020[2].
Rolands petersons privatbank In general, the reduction was wee, and the fact that a large part of the companies has abandoned the reduction of the workforce, which, on the one hand, would help to save, is right, as companies have not lost their effectiveness. Most companies have acted exactly the opposite - they stimulated stagnant economic growth with new products, accordingly obtaining new orders as well, Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
Rolands petersons privatbank offers his thoughts on UAE economy.Another point to be emphasized is that non-oil business operators in the UAE have shown that sometimes exactly the opposite action of the usual behaviour can improve the situation. In the area of a??a??pricing policy, most private non-oil companies in the UAE, instead of raising pressure on prices, announced constant prices, furthermore, some companies reported about price reduction, which was related to advertising activities.
Rolands petersons privatbankThe rate of growth was marked overall and reflected stronger inflows of new business from neighbouring GCC countries, besides new export orders rose once again during August and September.About Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.:A Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.
Rolands petersons privatbankis an international logistics company based in Poland since 2016. This company operates in Europe and also in many other major logistics centres in the world. The core business is a cargo brokerage, mainly marine cargo.
Rolands petersons privatbank Norman Logistics customers is significant EU companies which his production transport throughout marine cargo. And service providers are medium or large shipping companies. The mission of Norman Logistics is convenient logistics and one-point service for the same price, individual and best quality approach.
Rolands petersons privatbank

Author: Rolands Petersons, member of the board of Norman Logistics Sp.zo.o.

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Datum: 06.11.2018

Vložil: RozaCow

Titulek: Rolands petersons privatbank

The transport development has caused objective problems for traffic in cities around the world, including Latvia, and the reason for this is a rapid increase in the number of vehicles. Road congestion is the most urgent problem in a trip planning because it affects the total time of transportation and, therefore, costs that have a particular relevance to the logistics industry. The quality of the roads, a painful subject in the past, has a significant impact on transportation time. Without high-quality roads, it is impossible to improve the efficiency of transport, which, in the context of economic globalization, is said to be one of the main directions for the logistics development.Rolands petersons privatbank

Promises against statistics

At the end of 2017, according to the report "Global Competitiveness Index", which was annually compiled by experts from the World Economic Forum, Latvia was not ranked among the top 100 countries of the world's rating. (out of 137 countries participating in the ranking, Latvia took 107th place, and Lithuania and Estonia took the 37th and 38th places) Despite this, VAS (State Roads of Latvia) announced that, despite the increase in traffic on Latvian roads, their quality has been improved in recent years.

EU assessment - Stable 3 points.

In 2017, 65.1 million euros were spent on the development of the national roads, including 32.3 million for the summer period works, and 32.8 million for the winter period works.Rolands petersons privatbank In the same year, it was also planned to spend 37 million more, compared with the previous year. However, even these investments have not resulted in the average level of road quality in the European Union.Rolands petersons privatbank According to the latest report, the average level in the EU is estimated at 4.76 points, Latvia, compared to that has been given 3.05 points.

The state of the roads not only hinders the development of the logistics industry but also contributes to the disproportionate level and the pace of social and economic development of the regions.Rolands petersons privatbank The most remote regions of Latvia can develop tourism facilities, offer industrial premises for entrepreneurs, etc. however, if there is no road system to get to these cites, no results shall be expected.Rolands petersons privatbank

Financing is eight times less than it needs to be.

"Requests for the organization of roads," "Road quality is catastrophic" - these headlines often appear in the mass media, while road maps try to reduce the existing damage by implementation of available sources, however, there is no sign of a significant improvement, when the funding is eight times less than it is necessary.Rolands petersons privatbank At the same time, we make the mistake of struggling only with the consequences of the disease, when we need to identify the root of the problem and take the preventive measures.

One of the main problems that can be figured out now is the climate of the country, which in Latvia will not change significantly in the future, therefore, the problem will remain constant.Rolands petersons privatbank The number of vehicles will also increase, so the question is: how to increase financing, which is the most important addition to the urgent issues.Rolands petersons privatbank 130 million euros are required annually for maintenance and repair works of local and gravel roads but this amount cannot be provided only by EU funds. It is also completely unclear how the situation will look like in 2020, after the end of EU funding program.

Without the excise tax on fuel, there is no chance for survival

The fact that the change is expected in 2020, the spring of 2018 is said to be the moment to start an intensive work and stimulate actions - change existing arrangements related to the existing tax system (only a third of the tax, paid by road users, are redirected to roads).Rolands petersons privatbank The time when it was possible to pull out a part of the income from tax has passed. Furthermore, we need to increase the number of public-private partnership projects in the sphere of the road construction, although this stage requires a proper preparation.Rolands petersons privatbank

In addition to financing, other necessary support measures need to be introduced: dumping water from roads in certain areas, timely planning, more restrictive control on roads, etc.Rolands petersons privatbank

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